What are operators?
Operators are symbolic representations of mathematical tasks.
Operators are used to perform operations on values and variables. These are the special symbols that carry out arithmetic and logical computations. The value the operator operates on is known as Operand.
Different Types of Operators
1. Arithmetic Operators
Used to perform mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
|+||Addition: adds two operands||x + y|
|–||Subtraction: subtracts two operands||x – y|
|*||Multiplication: multiplies two operands||x * y|
|/||Division (float): divides the first operand by the second||x / y|
|//||Division (floor): divides the first operand by the second||x // y|
|%||Modulus: returns the remainder when first operand is divided by the second||x % y|
|**||Power : Returns first raised to power second||x ** y|
Example: Arithmetic operators in Python
# Examples of Arithmetic Operator a = 9 b = 4 # Addition of numbers add = a + b # Subtraction of numbers sub = a - b # Multiplication of number mul = a * b # Division(float) of number div1 = a / b # Division(floor) of number div2 = a // b # Modulo of both number mod = a % b # Power p = a ** b # print results print(add) print(sub) print(mul) print(div1) print(div2) print(mod) print(p)
13 5 36 2.25 2 1 6561
Comparison or Relational operators compare the values. It either returns True or False according to the condition.
|>||Greater than: True if left operand is greater than the right||x > y|
|<||Less than: True if left operand is less than the right||x < y|
|==||Equal to: True if both operands are equal||x == y|
|!=||Not equal to – True if operands are not equal||x != y|
|>=||Greater than or equal to: True if left operand is greater than or equal to the right||x >= y|
|<=||Less than or equal to: True if left operand is less than or equal to the right||x <= y|
Example: Comparison Operators in Python
# Examples of Relational Operators a = 13 b = 33 # a > b is False print(a > b) # a < b is True print(a < b) # a == b is False print(a == b) # a != b is True print(a != b) # a >= b is False print(a >= b) # a <= b is True print(a <= b)
False True False True False True
Logical operator perform Logical AND, Logical OR, and Logical NOT operations. It is used to combine conditional statements.
|and||Logical AND: True if both the operands are true||x and y|
|or||Logical OR: True if either of the operands is true||x or y|
|not||Logical NOT: True if operand is false||not x|
Example: Logical Operators in Python
# Examples of Logical Operator a = True b = False # Print a and b is False print(a and b) # Print a or b is True print(a or b) # Print not a is False print(not a)
False True False
Bitwise operators act on bits and perform the bit-by-bit operations. These are used to operate on binary numbers.
|&||Bitwise AND||x & y|
||||Bitwise OR||x | y|
|^||Bitwise XOR||x ^ y|
|>>||Bitwise right shift||x>>|
|<<||Bitwise left shift||x<<|
Example: Bitwise Operators in Python
# Examples of Bitwise operators a = 10 b = 4 # Print bitwise AND operation print(a & b) # Print bitwise OR operation print(a | b) # Print bitwise NOT operation print(~a) # print bitwise XOR operation print(a ^ b) # print bitwise right shift operation print(a >> 2) # print bitwise left shift operation print(a << 2)
0 14 -11 14 2 40
Assignment operators are used to assign values to the variables.
|=||Assign value of right side of expression to left side operand||x = y + z|
|+=||Add AND: Add right side operand with left side operand and then assign to left operand||a+=b a=a+b|
|-=||Subtract AND: Subtract right operand from left operand and then assign to left operand||a-=b a=a-b|
|*=||Multiply AND: Multiply right operand with left operand and then assign to left operand||a*=b a=a*b|
|/=||Divide AND: Divide left operand with right operand and then assign to left operand||a/=b a=a/b|
|%=||Modulus AND: Takes modulus using left and right operands and assign result to left operand||a%=b a=a%b|
|//=||Divide(floor) AND: Divide left operand with right operand and then assign the value(floor) to left operand||a//=b a=a//b|
|**=||Exponent AND: Calculate exponent(raise power) value using operands and assign value to left operand||a**=b a=a**b|
|&=||Performs Bitwise AND on operands and assign value to left operand||a&=b a=a&b|
||=||Performs Bitwise OR on operands and assign value to left operand||a|=b a=a|b|
|^=||Performs Bitwise xOR on operands and assign value to left operand||a^=b a=a^b|
|>>=||Performs Bitwise right shift on operands and assign value to left operand||a>>=b a=a>>b|
|<<=||Performs Bitwise left shift on operands and assign value to left operand||a <<= b a= a << b|
Example: Assignment Operator in Python
# Examples of Assignment Operators a = 10 # Assign value b = a print(b) # Add and assign value b += a print(b) # Subtract and assign value b -= a print(b) # multiply and assign b *= a print(b) # bitwise lishift operator b <<= a print(b)
10 20 10 100 102400
is and is not are the identity operators both are used to check if two values are located on the same part of the memory. Two variables that are equal do not imply that they are identical.
is True if the operands are identical is not True if the operands are not identical
Example: Identity Operator
a = 10 b = 20 c = a print(a is not b) print(a is c)
in and not in are the membership operators; used to test whether a value or variable is in a sequence.
in True if value is found in the sequence not in True if value is not found in the sequence
Example: Memebership Operator
# Python program to illustrate # not 'in' operator x = 24 y = 20 list = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50] if (x not in list): print("x is NOT present in given list") else: print("x is present in given list") if (y in list): print("y is present in given list") else: print("y is NOT present in given list")
x is NOT present in given list y is present in given list
Precedence and Associativity of Operators
Precedence and Associativity of Operators: Operator precedence and associativity determine the priorities of the operator.
This is used in an expression with more than one operator with different precedence to determine which operation to perform first.
Example: Operator Precedence
# Examples of Operator Precedence # Precedence of '+' & '*' expr = 10 + 20 * 30 print(expr) # Precedence of 'or' & 'and' name = "Alex" age = 0 if name == "Alex" or name == "John" and age >= 2: print("Hello! Welcome.") else: print("Good Bye!!")
610 Hello! Welcome.
If an expression contains two or more operators with the same precedence then Operator Associativity is used to determine. It can either be Left to Right or from Right to Left.
Example: Operator Associativity
# Examples of Operator Associativity # Left-right associativity # 100 / 10 * 10 is calculated as # (100 / 10) * 10 and not # as 100 / (10 * 10) print(100 / 10 * 10) # Left-right associativity # 5 - 2 + 3 is calculated as # (5 - 2) + 3 and not # as 5 - (2 + 3) print(5 - 2 + 3) # left-right associativity print(5 - (2 + 3)) # right-left associativity # 2 ** 3 ** 2 is calculated as # 2 ** (3 ** 2) and not # as (2 ** 3) ** 2 print(2 ** 3 ** 2)
100.0 6 0 512
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