# Operators in Python

### What are operators?

Operators are symbolic representations of mathematical tasks.

Operators are used to perform operations on values and variables. These are the special symbols that carry out arithmetic and logical computations. The value the operator operates on is known as Operand.

### Different Types of Operators

#### 1. Arithmetic Operators

Used to perform mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

#### Example: Arithmetic operators in Python

```# Examples of Arithmetic Operator
a = 9
b = 4

# Subtraction of numbers
sub = a - b

# Multiplication of number
mul = a * b

# Division(float) of number
div1 = a / b

# Division(floor) of number
div2 = a // b

# Modulo of both number
mod = a % b

# Power
p = a ** b

# print results
print(sub)
print(mul)
print(div1)
print(div2)
print(mod)
print(p)

```

Output

```13
5
36
2.25
2
1
6561```

### Comparison Operators

Comparison or Relational operators compare the values. It either returns True or False according to the condition.

#### Example: Comparison Operators in Python

```# Examples of Relational Operators
a = 13
b = 33

# a > b is False
print(a > b)

# a < b is True
print(a < b)

# a == b is False
print(a == b)

# a != b is True
print(a != b)

# a >= b is False
print(a >= b)

# a <= b is True
print(a <= b)

```

Output

```False
True
False
True
False
True
```

### Logical Operators

Logical operator perform Logical ANDLogical OR, and Logical NOT operations. It is used to combine conditional statements.

### Example: Logical Operators in Python

```# Examples of Logical Operator
a = True
b = False

# Print a and b is False
print(a and b)

# Print a or b is True
print(a or b)

# Print not a is False
print(not a)

```

Output

```False
True
False
```

### Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators act on bits and perform the bit-by-bit operations. These are used to operate on binary numbers.

### Example: Bitwise Operators in Python

```# Examples of Bitwise operators
a = 10
b = 4

# Print bitwise AND operation
print(a & b)

# Print bitwise OR operation
print(a | b)

# Print bitwise NOT operation
print(~a)

# print bitwise XOR operation
print(a ^ b)

# print bitwise right shift operation
print(a >> 2)

# print bitwise left shift operation
print(a << 2)

```

Output

```0
14
-11
14
2
40
```

### Assignment Operators

Assignment operators are used to assign values to the variables.

### Example: Assignment Operator in Python

```# Examples of Assignment Operators
a = 10

# Assign value
b = a
print(b)

b += a
print(b)

# Subtract and assign value
b -= a
print(b)

# multiply and assign
b *= a
print(b)

# bitwise lishift operator
b <<= a
print(b)

```

Output

```10
20
10
100
102400
```

### Identity Operators

is and is not are the identity operators both are used to check if two values are located on the same part of the memory. Two variables that are equal do not imply that they are identical.

```is          True if the operands are identical
is not      True if the operands are not identical ```

### Example: Identity Operator

```a = 10
b = 20
c = a

print(a is not b)
print(a is c)

```

Output

```True
True
```

### Membership Operators

in and not in are the membership operators; used to test whether a value or variable is in a sequence.

```in            True if value is found in the sequence

### Example: Memebership Operator

```# Python program to illustrate
# not 'in' operator
x = 24
y = 20
list = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]

if (x not in list):
print("x is NOT present in given list")
else:
print("x is present in given list")

if (y in list):
print("y is present in given list")
else:
print("y is NOT present in given list")

```

Output

```x is NOT present in given list
y is present in given list
```

### Precedence and Associativity of Operators

Precedence and Associativity of Operators: Operator precedence and associativity determine the priorities of the operator.

### Operator Precedence

This is used in an expression with more than one operator with different precedence to determine which operation to perform first.

### Example: Operator Precedence

```# Examples of Operator Precedence

# Precedence of '+' & '*'
expr = 10 + 20 * 30
print(expr)

# Precedence of 'or' & 'and'
name = "Alex"
age = 0

if name == "Alex" or name == "John" and age >= 2:
print("Hello! Welcome.")
else:
print("Good Bye!!")

```

Output

```610
Hello! Welcome.
```

### Operator Associativity

If an expression contains two or more operators with the same precedence then Operator Associativity is used to determine. It can either be Left to Right or from Right to Left.

### Example: Operator Associativity

```# Examples of Operator Associativity

# Left-right associativity
# 100 / 10 * 10 is calculated as
# (100 / 10) * 10 and not
# as 100 / (10 * 10)
print(100 / 10 * 10)

# Left-right associativity
# 5 - 2 + 3 is calculated as
# (5 - 2) + 3 and not
# as 5 - (2 + 3)
print(5 - 2 + 3)

# left-right associativity
print(5 - (2 + 3))

# right-left associativity
# 2 ** 3 ** 2 is calculated as
# 2 ** (3 ** 2) and not
# as (2 ** 3) ** 2
print(2 ** 3 ** 2)

```

Output

```100.0
6
0
512```

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