What are operators?

Operators are symbolic representations of mathematical tasks.

Operators are used to perform operations on values and variables. These are the special symbols that carry out arithmetic and logical computations. The value the operator operates on is known as Operand.

Different Types of Operators

1. Arithmetic Operators

Used to perform mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

OperatorDescriptionSyntax
+Addition: adds two operandsx + y
Subtraction: subtracts two operandsx – y
*Multiplication: multiplies two operandsx * y
/Division (float): divides the first operand by the secondx / y
//Division (floor): divides the first operand by the secondx // y
%Modulus: returns the remainder when first operand is divided by the secondx % y
**Power : Returns first raised to power secondx ** y

Example: Arithmetic operators in Python

# Examples of Arithmetic Operator
a = 9
b = 4

# Addition of numbers
add = a + b

# Subtraction of numbers
sub = a - b

# Multiplication of number
mul = a * b

# Division(float) of number
div1 = a / b

# Division(floor) of number
div2 = a // b

# Modulo of both number
mod = a % b

# Power
p = a ** b

# print results
print(add)
print(sub)
print(mul)
print(div1)
print(div2)
print(mod)
print(p)

Output

13
5
36
2.25
2
1
6561

Comparison Operators

Comparison or Relational operators compare the values. It either returns True or False according to the condition.

OperatorDescriptionSyntax
>Greater than: True if left operand is greater than the rightx > y
<Less than: True if left operand is less than the rightx < y
==Equal to: True if both operands are equalx == y
!=Not equal to – True if operands are not equalx != y
>=Greater than or equal to: True if left operand is greater than or equal to the rightx >= y
<=Less than or equal to: True if left operand is less than or equal to the rightx <= y

Example: Comparison Operators in Python

# Examples of Relational Operators
a = 13
b = 33

# a > b is False
print(a > b)

# a < b is True
print(a < b)

# a == b is False
print(a == b)

# a != b is True
print(a != b)

# a >= b is False
print(a >= b)

# a <= b is True
print(a <= b)

Output

False
True
False
True
False
True

Logical Operators

Logical operator perform Logical ANDLogical OR, and Logical NOT operations. It is used to combine conditional statements.

OperatorDescriptionSyntax
andLogical AND: True if both the operands are truex and y
orLogical OR: True if either of the operands is true x or y
notLogical NOT: True if operand is false not x

Example: Logical Operators in Python

# Examples of Logical Operator
a = True
b = False

# Print a and b is False
print(a and b)

# Print a or b is True
print(a or b)

# Print not a is False
print(not a)

Output

False
True
False

Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators act on bits and perform the bit-by-bit operations. These are used to operate on binary numbers.

OperatorDescriptionSyntax
&Bitwise ANDx & y
|Bitwise ORx | y
~Bitwise NOT~x
^Bitwise XORx ^ y
>>Bitwise right shiftx>>
<<Bitwise left shiftx<<

Example: Bitwise Operators in Python

# Examples of Bitwise operators
a = 10
b = 4

# Print bitwise AND operation
print(a & b)

# Print bitwise OR operation
print(a | b)

# Print bitwise NOT operation
print(~a)

# print bitwise XOR operation
print(a ^ b)

# print bitwise right shift operation
print(a >> 2)

# print bitwise left shift operation
print(a << 2)

Output

0
14
-11
14
2
40

Assignment Operators 

Assignment operators are used to assign values to the variables.

OperatorDescriptionSyntax
=Assign value of right side of expression to left side operand x = y + z
+=Add AND: Add right side operand with left side operand and then assign to left operanda+=b     a=a+b
-=Subtract AND: Subtract right operand from left operand and then assign to left operanda-=b     a=a-b
*=Multiply AND: Multiply right operand with left operand and then assign to left operanda*=b     a=a*b
/=Divide AND: Divide left operand with right operand and then assign to left operanda/=b     a=a/b
%=Modulus AND: Takes modulus using left and right operands and assign result to left operanda%=b     a=a%b
//=Divide(floor) AND: Divide left operand with right operand and then assign the value(floor) to left operanda//=b     a=a//b
**=Exponent AND: Calculate exponent(raise power) value using operands and assign value to left operanda**=b     a=a**b
&=Performs Bitwise AND on operands and assign value to left operanda&=b     a=a&b
|=Performs Bitwise OR on operands and assign value to left operanda|=b     a=a|b
^=Performs Bitwise xOR on operands and assign value to left operanda^=b     a=a^b
>>=Performs Bitwise right shift on operands and assign value to left operanda>>=b     a=a>>b
<<=Performs Bitwise left shift on operands and assign value to left operanda <<= b     a= a << b

Example: Assignment Operator in Python

# Examples of Assignment Operators
a = 10

# Assign value
b = a
print(b)

# Add and assign value
b += a
print(b)

# Subtract and assign value
b -= a
print(b)

# multiply and assign
b *= a
print(b)

# bitwise lishift operator
b <<= a
print(b)

Output

10
20
10
100
102400

Identity Operators

is and is not are the identity operators both are used to check if two values are located on the same part of the memory. Two variables that are equal do not imply that they are identical. 

is          True if the operands are identical 
is not      True if the operands are not identical 

Example: Identity Operator

a = 10
b = 20
c = a

print(a is not b)
print(a is c)

Output

True
True

Membership Operators

in and not in are the membership operators; used to test whether a value or variable is in a sequence.

in            True if value is found in the sequence
not in        True if value is not found in the sequence

Example: Memebership Operator

# Python program to illustrate
# not 'in' operator
x = 24
y = 20
list = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]

if (x not in list):
	print("x is NOT present in given list")
else:
	print("x is present in given list")

if (y in list):
	print("y is present in given list")
else:
	print("y is NOT present in given list")

Output

x is NOT present in given list
y is present in given list

Precedence and Associativity of Operators

Precedence and Associativity of Operators: Operator precedence and associativity determine the priorities of the operator.

Operator Precedence

This is used in an expression with more than one operator with different precedence to determine which operation to perform first.

Example: Operator Precedence

# Examples of Operator Precedence

# Precedence of '+' & '*'
expr = 10 + 20 * 30
print(expr)

# Precedence of 'or' & 'and'
name = "Alex"
age = 0

if name == "Alex" or name == "John" and age >= 2:
	print("Hello! Welcome.")
else:
	print("Good Bye!!")

Output

610
Hello! Welcome.

Operator Associativity

If an expression contains two or more operators with the same precedence then Operator Associativity is used to determine. It can either be Left to Right or from Right to Left.

Example: Operator Associativity

# Examples of Operator Associativity

# Left-right associativity
# 100 / 10 * 10 is calculated as
# (100 / 10) * 10 and not
# as 100 / (10 * 10)
print(100 / 10 * 10)

# Left-right associativity
# 5 - 2 + 3 is calculated as
# (5 - 2) + 3 and not
# as 5 - (2 + 3)
print(5 - 2 + 3)

# left-right associativity
print(5 - (2 + 3))

# right-left associativity
# 2 ** 3 ** 2 is calculated as
# 2 ** (3 ** 2) and not
# as (2 ** 3) ** 2
print(2 ** 3 ** 2)

Output

100.0
6
0
512

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