### What are operators?

Operators are symbolic representations of mathematical tasks.

Operators are used to perform operations on values and variables. These are the special symbols that carry out arithmetic and logical computations. The value the operator operates on is known as ** Operand**.

### Different Types of Operators

#### 1. Arithmetic Operators

Used to perform mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

+ | Addition: adds two operands | x + y |

– | Subtraction: subtracts two operands | x – y |

* | Multiplication: multiplies two operands | x * y |

/ | Division (float): divides the first operand by the second | x / y |

// | Division (floor): divides the first operand by the second | x // y |

% | Modulus: returns the remainder when first operand is divided by the second | x % y |

** | Power : Returns first raised to power second | x ** y |

**Example: Arithmetic operators in Python**

```
# Examples of Arithmetic Operator
a = 9
b = 4
# Addition of numbers
add = a + b
# Subtraction of numbers
sub = a - b
# Multiplication of number
mul = a * b
# Division(float) of number
div1 = a / b
# Division(floor) of number
div2 = a // b
# Modulo of both number
mod = a % b
# Power
p = a ** b
# print results
print(add)
print(sub)
print(mul)
print(div1)
print(div2)
print(mod)
print(p)
```

**Output**

13 5 36 2.25 2 1 6561

### Comparison** Operators**

Comparison or Relational operators compare the values. It either returns **True** or **False** according to the condition.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

> | Greater than: True if left operand is greater than the right | x > y |

< | Less than: True if left operand is less than the right | x < y |

== | Equal to: True if both operands are equal | x == y |

!= | Not equal to – True if operands are not equal | x != y |

>= | Greater than or equal to: True if left operand is greater than or equal to the right | x >= y |

<= | Less than or equal to: True if left operand is less than or equal to the right | x <= y |

**Example: Comparison Operators in Python**

```
# Examples of Relational Operators
a = 13
b = 33
# a > b is False
print(a > b)
# a < b is True
print(a < b)
# a == b is False
print(a == b)
# a != b is True
print(a != b)
# a >= b is False
print(a >= b)
# a <= b is True
print(a <= b)
```

**Output**

False True False True False True

**Logical Operators**

Logical operator perform **Logical AND**, **Logical OR**, and** Logical NOT** operations. It is used to combine conditional statements.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

and | Logical AND: True if both the operands are true | x and y |

or | Logical OR: True if either of the operands is true | x or y |

not | Logical NOT: True if operand is false | not x |

### Example: Logical Operators in Python

```
# Examples of Logical Operator
a = True
b = False
# Print a and b is False
print(a and b)
# Print a or b is True
print(a or b)
# Print not a is False
print(not a)
```

**Output**

False True False

**Bitwise Operators**

Bitwise operators act on bits and perform the bit-by-bit operations. These are used to operate on binary numbers.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

& | Bitwise AND | x & y |

| | Bitwise OR | x | y |

~ | Bitwise NOT | ~x |

^ | Bitwise XOR | x ^ y |

>> | Bitwise right shift | x>> |

<< | Bitwise left shift | x<< |

### Example: Bitwise Operators in Python

```
# Examples of Bitwise operators
a = 10
b = 4
# Print bitwise AND operation
print(a & b)
# Print bitwise OR operation
print(a | b)
# Print bitwise NOT operation
print(~a)
# print bitwise XOR operation
print(a ^ b)
# print bitwise right shift operation
print(a >> 2)
# print bitwise left shift operation
print(a << 2)
```

**Output**

0 14 -11 14 2 40

**Assignment Operators **

Assignment operators are used to assign values to the variables.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

= | Assign value of right side of expression to left side operand | x = y + z |

+= | Add AND: Add right side operand with left side operand and then assign to left operand | a+=b a=a+b |

-= | Subtract AND: Subtract right operand from left operand and then assign to left operand | a-=b a=a-b |

*= | Multiply AND: Multiply right operand with left operand and then assign to left operand | a*=b a=a*b |

/= | Divide AND: Divide left operand with right operand and then assign to left operand | a/=b a=a/b |

%= | Modulus AND: Takes modulus using left and right operands and assign result to left operand | a%=b a=a%b |

//= | Divide(floor) AND: Divide left operand with right operand and then assign the value(floor) to left operand | a//=b a=a//b |

**= | Exponent AND: Calculate exponent(raise power) value using operands and assign value to left operand | a**=b a=a**b |

&= | Performs Bitwise AND on operands and assign value to left operand | a&=b a=a&b |

|= | Performs Bitwise OR on operands and assign value to left operand | a|=b a=a|b |

^= | Performs Bitwise xOR on operands and assign value to left operand | a^=b a=a^b |

>>= | Performs Bitwise right shift on operands and assign value to left operand | a>>=b a=a>>b |

<<= | Performs Bitwise left shift on operands and assign value to left operand | a <<= b a= a << b |

### Example: Assignment Operator in Python

```
# Examples of Assignment Operators
a = 10
# Assign value
b = a
print(b)
# Add and assign value
b += a
print(b)
# Subtract and assign value
b -= a
print(b)
# multiply and assign
b *= a
print(b)
# bitwise lishift operator
b <<= a
print(b)
```

**Output**

10 20 10 100 102400

**Identity Operators**

**is** and **is not** are the identity operators both are used to check if two values are located on the same part of the memory. Two variables that are equal do not imply that they are identical.

isTrue if the operands are identicalis notTrue if the operands are not identical

**Example: Identity Operator**

```
a = 10
b = 20
c = a
print(a is not b)
print(a is c)
```

**Output**

True True

**Membership Operators**

**in** and **not in** are the membership operators; used to test whether a value or variable is in a sequence.

inTrue if value is found in the sequencenot inTrue if value is not found in the sequence

**Example: Memebership Operator**

```
# Python program to illustrate
# not 'in' operator
x = 24
y = 20
list = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
if (x not in list):
print("x is NOT present in given list")
else:
print("x is present in given list")
if (y in list):
print("y is present in given list")
else:
print("y is NOT present in given list")
```

**Output**

x is NOT present in given list y is present in given list

### Precedence and Associativity of Operators

**Precedence and Associativity of Operators:** Operator precedence and associativity determine the priorities of the operator.

**Operator Precedence**

This is used in an expression with more than one operator with different precedence to determine which operation to perform first.

### Example: Operator Precedence

```
# Examples of Operator Precedence
# Precedence of '+' & '*'
expr = 10 + 20 * 30
print(expr)
# Precedence of 'or' & 'and'
name = "Alex"
age = 0
if name == "Alex" or name == "John" and age >= 2:
print("Hello! Welcome.")
else:
print("Good Bye!!")
```

**Output**

610 Hello! Welcome.

**Operator Associativity**

If an expression contains two or more operators with the same precedence then Operator Associativity is used to determine. It can either be Left to Right or from Right to Left.

**Example: Operator Associativity**

```
# Examples of Operator Associativity
# Left-right associativity
# 100 / 10 * 10 is calculated as
# (100 / 10) * 10 and not
# as 100 / (10 * 10)
print(100 / 10 * 10)
# Left-right associativity
# 5 - 2 + 3 is calculated as
# (5 - 2) + 3 and not
# as 5 - (2 + 3)
print(5 - 2 + 3)
# left-right associativity
print(5 - (2 + 3))
# right-left associativity
# 2 ** 3 ** 2 is calculated as
# 2 ** (3 ** 2) and not
# as (2 ** 3) ** 2
print(2 ** 3 ** 2)
```

**Output**

100.0 6 0 512

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